Air pollution is one of the most significant environmental problems facing our world today. The negative impacts of air pollution on human health and the environment are well-documented, but the economic costs of air pollution are often overlooked. However, reducing air pollution can have significant economic and health benefits.
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One of the most significant economic benefits of reducing air pollution is the cost savings associated with improved health outcomes. By reducing air pollution, we can lower the incidence of respiratory illnesses, such as asthma and lung cancer, which can lead to lower healthcare costs and improved productivity. In addition, reducing air pollution can lead to job creation in the clean energy sector, as well as in other industries that benefit from a healthier workforce.
At the same time, reducing air pollution can also have significant health benefits. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), air pollution is responsible for millions of premature deaths each year, with the greatest impact felt in low- and middle-income countries. By reducing air pollution, we can improve overall health outcomes and reduce the burden of disease on individuals and society.
Assess the economic and health benefits of reducing air pollution in the two megacities
How will the ongoing air pollution in National, KH&CN, especially in the two megacities of Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi, affect the economic benefits and health of the people?
With this question, a research team consisting of National, KH&CNese and Thai scientists sought to quantify the impact of air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City, based on 2019 pollution data. The results are published in the journal Hygiene and Environmental Health Advances “Assessment of health and economic benefits of reducing fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration in Ho Chi Minh City, National, KH&CN”.
In this study, they delve into the disease burden of PM . dust2.5 and used the program BenMAP-CE, an open source software that calculates the economic value of air pollution in relation to mortality and morbidity to estimate health and economic benefits under three controlled scenarios average annual concentration of PM2.5based on WHO guidelines for average concentrations of PM2.5 (5µg/m .)3) as well as the average annual standard of National, KH&CN 25µg/m3.
To get input for this model, the researchers used data collected from two pollution monitoring stations in the center of Ho Chi Minh City, one from the US Consulate General in Ho Chi Minh City and the other from data. of the University of Natural Sciences, National, KH&CN National University, Ho Chi Minh City. In the case of days without data, they extrapolated from the concentrations of the previous day and the next day. However, overall, they have data on PM . dust pollution2.5 for 361 days (1.4% data loss). With this data, they calculated the average concentration of PM . dust2.5 in 2019 is 28.9µg/m3. Compared to National, KH&CN’s daily standard, 7% of days in 2019 exceeded the standard.
The researchers identified three pollution scenarios: 1) PM . concentrations2.5 equivalent to WHO 2021 guidelines (5µg/m3); 2) PM . concentration2.5 at the 2005 WHO guideline level (10 g/m3); 3) PM . concentration2.5 at the standard level of National, KH&CN (25µg/m3).
With the first scenario, the health benefits that Ho Chi Minh City have is that 1,877 deaths due to diseases related to cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and lung cancer can be avoided. The second scenario shows that the health benefit of avoiding death is 1,278 cases. With the third scenario, this number is 128 cases. These figures are lower than the results of the study in Bangkok, where PM . dust concentrations were found2.5 not much difference (HCMC is 28.9µg/m3 and Bangkok is 27.9µg/m3). One of the possible reasons for this is that the total number of all-cause deaths in Bangkok in 2017 (46,000) was greater than the total number of all-cause deaths in HCMC in 2019 ( 28,000).
The cleaner the air, the more economic benefits are obtained. In all three scenarios PM . dust control2.5in 2019 in HCMC could be from 2.4 to 3.7 billion USD (scenario 1), 2.1 to 3.1 billion USD (scenario 2) and 841 to 1,276 million USD (scenario 3). Compared with the gross domestic product (GRDP) of Ho Chi Minh City in 2019 of 58.3 billion USD, the related economic benefits account for 4.1% – 6.3% (scenario 1). 3.6% – 5.3% (scenario 2) and 1.4% to 2.2% GRDP.
However, the researchers say there are some limitations to this study, which is that air pollution data with different sources can vary. The two pollution monitoring stations are located in the city center, surrounded by dense houses, small streets, high population density while suburban districts tend to be lower. On the other hand, the quality of the A6 death book – the document that reports the causes of death according to the A6-YTCS book – is also a challenge for the calculation of the mortality rate. A large proportion of unexplained deaths affected the accuracy of cause-specific mortality. The value of statistical life expectancy is another challenge because National, KH&CN has no studies to calculate it.
In conclusion, reducing air pollution has both economic and health benefits. By improving air quality, we can improve overall health outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and create new job opportunities in the clean energy sector. As individuals and as a society, it is our responsibility to take action to reduce air pollution and protect the health and well-being of ourselves and future generations. For more information on this important topic, visit ODaily.info.